We develop a computer-assisted method for the discovery of insightful conceptualizations, in the form of clusterings (i.e., partitions) of input objects. Each of the numerous fully automated methods of cluster analysis proposed in statistics, computer science, and biology optimize a different objective function. Almost all are well defined, but how to determine before the fact which one, if any, will partition a given set of objects in an "insightful" or "useful" way for a given user is unknown and difficult, if not logically impossible. We develop a metric space of partitions from all existing cluster analysis methods applied to a given data set (along with millions of other solutions we add based on combinations of existing clusterings), and enable a user to explore and interact with it, and quickly reveal or prompt useful or insightful conceptualizations. In addition, although uncommon in unsupervised learning problems, we offer and implement evaluation designs that make our computer-assisted approach vulnerable to being proven suboptimal in specific data types. We demonstrate that our approach facilitates more efficient and insightful discovery of useful information than either expert human coders or many existing fully automated methods.

# Methods

## Content Analysis

*You Lie!* Patterns of Partisan Taunting in the U.S. Senate (Poster)

## Software

## Data

## Causal Inference

## Methods for Observational Data

## Evaluating Model Dependence

## Matching Methods

## Additional Approaches

## Experimental Design

Methods for Extremely Large Scale Media Experiments and Observational Studies (Poster)

.” Society for Political Methodology. Athens, GA.Abstract**(Articles on the Seguro Popular Evaluation: Website)**

## Software

## Applications

## Event Counts and Durations

## Event Counts

Unifying Political Methodology: The Likelihood Theory of Statistical Inference

. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Publisher's Version## Duration of Parliamentary Governments

## Software

## Related Data

## Ecological Inference

## Methods

## Software

## Data

## Discussions and Extensions

## Missing Data

## Methods

## Software

## How Surveys Work

## Qualitative Research

## Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research

## In Legal Research

## Rare Events

## Case Control and Rare Events Bias Corrections

## Bias Correction

## Hidden Region 1

## Estimating Base Probabilities

Inference in Case-Control Studies

.” Encyclopedia of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, , 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker.Abstract## Hidden Region 2

## Automatic Coding of Rare Events

## Software

## Data

## Survey Research

## Anchoring Vignettes

Many more details, examples, videos, software, etc. can be found at the The Anchoring Vignettes Website: HTML

## Software

## How Surveys Work

## Related Research

**Imputing Missing Data** due to survey nonresponse: Website

**Analyzing Rare Events**, including rare survey outcomes and alternative methods of sampling for rare events: Website

**Estimating Mortality by Survey** using surveys of siblings or other groups, as well as methods designed for estimating cause-specific mortality that applies more generally for extrapolating from one population to another: Website

## Unifying Statistical Analysis

## Unifying Approaches to Statistical Analysis

Unifying Political Methodology: The Likelihood Theory of Statistical Inference

. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Publisher's Version