Browning, Robert X, and Gary King. 1987. Seats, Votes, and Gerrymandering: Measuring Bias and Representation in Legislative Redistricting. Law and Policy 9: 305–322. Copy at http://j.mp/lcTKUu
Abstract:The Davis v. Bandemer case focused much attention on the problem of using statistical evidence to demonstrate the existence of political gerrymandering. In this paper, we evaluate the uses and limitations of measures of the seat-votes relationship in the Bandemer case. We outline a statistical method we have developed that can be used to estimate bias and the form of representation in legislative redistricting. We apply this method to Indiana State House and Senate elections for the period 1972 to 1984 and demonstrate a maximum bias 6.2% toward the Republicans in the House and a 2.8% bias in the Senate.