Isolating Spatial Autocorrelation, Aggregation Bias, and Distributional Violations in Ecological Inference


King, Gary. 2002. “Isolating Spatial Autocorrelation, Aggregation Bias, And Distributional Violations In Ecological Inference.” Political Analysis 10: 298–300. Copy at
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This is an invited response to an article by Anselin and Cho. I make two main points: The numerical results in this article violate no conclusions from prior literature, and the absence of the deterministic information from the bounds in the article’s analyses invalidates its theoretical discussion of spatial autocorrelation and all of its actual simulation results. An appendix shows how to draw simulations correctly.